Myeloproliferative disorders (MPD)
Myeloproliferative disorders (MPDs) or myeloproliferative neoplasms (MNPs) are actually a collection of blood disorders. Myeloproliferative disorders are caused by mutations in bone marrow stem cells. As understood, the stem cells help in formation of different blood cells ÛÒ the red blood cells help to carry oxygen to different parts of the body, white blood cells help to fight infections, and platelets aid in blood clotting. In patients with myeloproliferative disorders (MPDs), the stem cells overproduce blood cells. Myeloproliferative disorders (MPDs) may lead to leukemia or myelofibrosis, and visibly seen as scar-type tissue in the bone marrow.
Myeloproliferative disorders are characterized by shortness of breath, weakness and fatigue, pale skin, loss of appetite, prolonged bleeding from the skin (purpura), sinus, skin or urinary infections. Prima facie myeloproliferative disorders (MPDs) are characterized by increased thickness of the blood, heart attacks, strokes and clots in leg veins.
RISK FACTORS & COMPLICATIONS
Excess bleeding and thrombosis are common complications of myeloproliferative disorders. The risk factors for bleeding and thromboembolic events are elevated platelet count and patient age.
TESTS AND DIAGNOSIS
The frequently ordered tests are CBCs and differentials, which help in diagnosis and monitoring of myeloproliferative disorders. CBCs and differentials are used to detect the increase, decrease and abnormality of white blood cells (WBCs), red blood cells (RBCs) and platelets. During the bone marrow aspiration/biopsy, a small sample of marrow is collected and examined under a microscope. The concerned pathologist, oncologist or hematologist identifies the type, number and appearance of various types of cells in the bone marrow,
Other tests to determine myeloproliferative disorders include, arterial blood gases (ABGs), Erythropoietin and cytogenetic analysis. The amount of gasses in the arterial blood is examined by the Arterial blood gases test. Erythropoietin stimulates the bone marrow to produce RBCs. Cytogenetic analysis helps to in the diagnosis of suspected myeloproliferative disorders. Some of the non-laboratory tests prescribed for myeloproliferative disorders includes X-rays and other imaging scans. X-ray and imaging scans look for masses in the cells.
TREATMENTS & DRUGS
In general, the treatment for myeloproliferative disorders aims to correct the abnormal blood counts. Some of the popular treatments for myeloproliferative disorders include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, thalidomide and alpha interferon. Some patients with myeloproliferative disorders may require red blood transfusions also.
Patients with advanced myeloproliferative disorders may qualify for bone marrow transplantation, which is also called as allogeneic stem cell transplantation (stem cells are transferred from one person to another). Different varieties of drugs are prescribed for the treatment of myeloproliferative disorders. First and foremost, the doctorÛªs advice is required immediately to take the corrective steps, and avail the right course of treatment. Only the specialist doctor can provide an assurance on longer period of happy and healthy life.