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All you need to know about Bladder Cancer: Risk factors, Diagnosis and Treatment Options

bladder cancer

Patients with bladder cancer can receive one of four treatments which include surgery, chemotherapy, intravenous chemotherapy or immunotherapy for superficial tumors, and radiation therapy.

What is bladder cancer?

Bladder cancer is a type of cancer that develops when the cells in the urinary bladder grow out of control and generate DNA alterations. Cancer is most commonly found in the urothelial cells that form barrier lines around the bladder’s inner surface. When cancer spreads through the layers of the bladder wall and reaches the innermost lining, it becomes tough to treat. The bladder is a portion of your urinary system that filters waste from your blood and excretes it in the form of urine.

Risk factors for bladder cancer:

  • Smoking Cigarette
  • Prior Radiation Exposure
  • Certain chemotherapy drugs
  • Environmental exposures 
  • Exposure to aromatic amines
  • Environmental exposures(chemicals used in dyes, rubber industries, leather, paint)
  • Infection with a parasite such as Schistosoma haematobium.
  • Infections on the bladder stones or diseases on the urinary tract.
  • Previous bladder cancer history or family history
  • Males are more commonly affected than females.

 

Risk factors for bladder cancer

Warning signs of bladder cancer

Cervical cancer is mostly associated with the  human papillomavirus (HPV).

  • Blood in the urine: Causes the urine to appear bright red or cola-colored, while the urine can also appear normal and blood can be discovered on a lab test.
  • Urination on a regular basis
  • Painful Urination 
  • Back Pain

Diagnosis And Tests

Examining the inside of your bladder with a scope (cystoscopy)

A thin, narrow tube (cystoscope) is inserted into your urethra to perform cystoscopy. The cystoscope contains a lens that allows the doctor to check the inside of your urethra and bladder for symptoms of the disease. 

Taking a tissue sample for testing (biopsy)

A special tool is used to enter the bladder and collect a sample (biopsy) for testing during cystoscopy. Transurethral resection of bladder tumor is another name for this procedure (TURBT), which can also be used to treat bladder cancer. 

Transurethral resection (TURBT) is a treatment that involves inserting a telescope into the bladder and scraping the tumour from the bladder wall (a portion of the bladder wall is removed with it). This treatment can be used for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes.

A CT scan of the abdomen and pelvis might be the next step for some individuals with invasive cancer to see if the disease has gone beyond the bladder.

What are the treatment options for bladder cancer?

Patients with bladder cancer can receive one of four treatments which include surgery, chemotherapy, intravenous chemotherapy or immunotherapy for superficial tumors, and radiation therapy. 

Combinations of these treatments are sometimes employed. 

Surgical options

Bladder cancer is commonly treated with surgery. While the type of surgery required will be determined by the stage of cancer. Transurethral resection of the bladder is most commonly done for early-stage illnesses. A partial cystectomy occurs when a piece of the bladder is removed. 

Radical cystectomy is a complete removal of the bladder. Because the bladder is removed, a procedure called a urinary diversion must be done so that urine can exit the body. A pouch constructed of an intestine may be made inside the body, or a leak-proof bag worn outside the body may be used to collect urine.

The bladder is completely removed during a radical cystectomy. Because the bladder has been removed, a urinary diversion surgery is required to allow urine to exit the body. To collect urine, a pouch formed from the intestine can be built inside the body, or a leak-proof bag can be worn outside the body.

References

About Author –

Dr. Sachin Subash Marda, Consultant Oncologist (Cancer Specialist), Yashoda Hospitals, Hyderabad
Dr. Sachin Subash Marda specializes in breast cancer, head & neck cancer, gastrointestinal cancers, gynecological and urological cancers. He has a vast experience in several robotic surgeries, laparoscopic surgeries, day care oncological procedures and HIPEC.

best Surgical Oncologist in hyderabad

Dr. Sachin Marda

MS, DNB, MCh, DNB (General Surgery, Surgical Oncology)
Sr. Consultant Oncologist & Robotic Surgeon (Cancer Specialist)

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