5 Types Of Heart Diseases, Causes, Symptoms and Risk factors

Types of Heart Diseases: Heart is not just a biological organ that pumps blood to various parts of the body but it is also associated with numerous feelings and emotions. Be it excitement, anxiety, happiness, grief or sadness, Heart reacts, responds and reciprocate every such emotion. This is exactly why Heart is considered as mirror that reflects whole body activities and tasks. Because of such imperious functionality, many people are suffering with Cardiac problems around the globe. For your better understanding here’s the list of 5 types cardiac diseases, their symptoms, causes & risk factors.Heart Diseases, Causes, Symptoms and Risk factors

1. CORONARY HEART DISEASE

Coronary Heart Disease refers to the condition of patient where plaque builds up in the inner lining of coronary arteries which carry oxygen-rich blood to the heart. Generally plague is a sticky substance formed out of fatty deposits (cholesterol) and other cellular waste. It is also known as Coronary Artery Disease or Atherosclerosis. Plague gets hardened with the time and it narrows the coronary arteries thereby obstructing the flow of blood.

SYMPTOMS

  • Angina / Chest pain
  • Shortness of breath
  • Sweating
  • Weakness
  • Dizziness
  • Nausea
  • Rapid heartbeat
  • Palpitations

CAUSES & RISK FACTORS

  • High blood pressure
  • High cholesterol
  • Smoking
  • Diabetes or insulin resistance
  • Sedentary lifestyle
  • Physical inactivity
  • Overweight
  • High stress
  • Family history

2. CEREBROVASCULAR DISEASE

The word Cerebro refers to something that is related to brain and Vascular means blood vessel. Consummately, Cerebrovascular Disease is an event which affects the blood supply to the brain. It’s a serious medical condition which can result into brain damage when cells doesn’t get enough oxygen caused by hemorrhage, vascular malformation or blockage. Cerebrovascular Disease can create huge impact on the brain’s normal functions and sometimes may also lead to stroke.

SYMPTOMS

  • Rigorous and unexpected headache
  • Paralysis of one side
  • Vomiting & Fever
  • Seizures 
  • Weakness on one side 
  • Unsteadiness or inability to walk 
  • Confusion & difficulty communicating 
  • Slurred speech 
  • Loss of half of vision 
  • lackout

CAUSES & RISK FACTORS

  • Hypertension
  • Poor diet
  • Uncontrolled diabetes
  • Moyamoya disease
  • Venous angiomas
  • Following a head trauma

3. PERIPHERAL ARTERIAL DISEASE

Similar to the Coronary Heart Disease, Peripheral Arterial Disease is the narrowing of peripheral arteries that carries oxygen-rich blood to the head, arms, legs and stomach. Most widely PAD affects the arteries of limbs causing acute pain and numbness. It is usually misunderstood for neuropathy often caused by diabetes. If left untreated, this medical condition can lead to heart attack and other serious illness. This can be one of the major types of heart diseases.

SYMPTOMS

  • Pain that occurs while walking and dissipates at rest
  • Numbness of the legs or feet
  • Weakness of the calf muscle
  • A feeling of coldness in the legs or feet
  • Changes in colour of the feet
  • Hair loss
  • Poor wound healing in the legs or feet

CAUSES & RISK FACTORS

  • Chronic renal failure
  •  A family history of atherosclerotic disease
  • Obesity
  • High blood pressure
  • Lack of physical activity
  • Diabetes mellitus

4. RHEUMATIC HEART DISEASE

Rheumatic Heart Disease marks the condition of patient where one or more heart valves are damaged. It is the result of inflamed heart caused by periodic rheumatic fever. Obstructing the normal blood flow, heart valves remain stretched and blood may also flow in the backward direction. Unlike other heart diseases, children are at higher risk of Rheumatic Heart Disease. It is 100% treatable if detected in the early stages.

SYMPTOMS

  • Sore throat
  • Joint pains
  • Fever
  • Swollen lymph nodes
  • Red rashes
  • Difficulty in eating & swallowing
  • Thick, bloody discharge from nose
  • Tonsils that are red and swollen
  • Tonsils with white patches or pus
  • Small, red spots on the roof of their mouth
  • Headache
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting

CAUSES & RISK FACTORS

  • Children aged between 5 to 15 years are at higher risk
  • Family history
  • Strep bacteria
  • Impure water
  • Overcrowding
  • Poor sanitation

5. CONGENITAL HEART DISEASE

Typically caused by the infections during pregnancy, Congenital Heart Disease, also known as Congenital Heart Defect is the problem with the structure of heart that is present at the time of birth. Defects may be related to the walls, valves of the heart or the arteries / veins in the region around the heart. It alters normal flow of blood and in rare cases can cause severe damage to the body organs.

SYMPTOMS

  • A bluish tint to the skin, fingernails, and lips
  • Shortness of breath
  • Problems with exercise
  • Poor weight gain
  • Poor feeding

CAUSES & RISK FACTORS

  • Genes or chromosomes in the child
  • Alcohol or drug abuse during pregnancy
  • Viral infections, like rubella
  • Taking certain medications

Before couple of decades, Different types of Heart Diseases were most common among the senior citizens but the recent studies illustrates shocking facts. Many cases are being reported at the early phase of life, particularly among the individuals aged between 20 to 30 years. It may be attributed to the increased stress in the corporate culture, disturbed work-life balance, over ambitions and lots more. Causes and risk factors are many, but we cannot afford to ignore the warning signs. If you notice any such symptoms, it’s always better to fix an appointment with your cardiologist.
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These are the types of Heart diseases as mentioned above.

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