Frequent urination at night may be a sign of Prostate Cancer.
Prostate gland is found only in males. The seminal fluid produced by prostate gland helps to nourish and transport the sperm. Prostate cancer is common in men aged over 60 years. Increasing age is considered as the important factor for developing prostate cancer. If detected early there are better chances of successful treatment, if neglected the cancerous cells may spread to other tissues of the body.
The causes of prostate cancer are not fully understood. However, like other cancers, prostate cancer also occurs when there is growth of abnormal cells, which continue to live and form a tumor, later to invade the surrounding tissues.
Those with prostate cancer suffer from symptoms like, trouble to urinate, decreased force of urine, blood in semen, pelvic discomfort, bone pain and erectile dysfunction.
RISK FACTORS & COMPLICATIONS
There is greater risk of prostate cancer due to old age, family history of prostate cancer, and obesity. It has been found that, families with history of breast cancer (BRCA1 or BRCA2) present a greater risk of prostate cancer. The complications of prostate cancer are evident over a long period of time. It is seen as spreading to other nearby organs or travel through the bloodstream or lymph to affect the bones. Prostate cancer can cause urinary incontinence, a condition where the bladder loses control and there is uncontrollable wetting. Another complication of prostate cancer is erectile dysfunction, an inability to develop or maintain an erection of the penis during sexual activity.
TESTS AND DIAGNOSIS
Males above 50 years of age should as a matter of routine get tested for prostate cancer, as early diagnosis helps in providing better and effective treatment. Two tests are prescribed by the doctor as part of diagnosis of prostate cancer. Digital rectal exam (DRE) helps to note the size, texture and shape of the prostate gland. The Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) Test studies the amount of PSA in the blood. Higher level of PSA in the blood indicates prostate infection and possible prostate cancer. The transrectal ultrasound helps to evaluate the condition of prostate gland. Prostate biopsy may be advised if the doctor finds the case to be complicated. The tissue collected from the prostate is analyzed to identify the cancer cells.
TREATMENTS AND DRUGS
Treatment depends on the stage of prostate cancer. Stage 1, when prostate cancer is confined to the prostate. State 2, when prostate cancer though confined to the prostate is more aggressive, larger and spread to both sides of the prostate cancer. Stage 3, when cancerous cells spread from prostate to seminal vesicles, and Stage IV when cancer spreads from prostate to bladder, lymph nodes, bones, lungs and other organs.
The regular treatments for prostate cancer include radiation therapy (brachytherapy) and hormone therapy. Advanced prostate cancer is referred for hormone therapy and surgery. Radical prostatectomy is a process where the affected prostate gland and its surrounding tissues are removed completely.
Prostate surgery is performed by a robot or by making an incision in the abdomen, or between anus and scrotum. Laparoscopic prostatectomy is the process where surgery is done through a small incision in the abdomen with the assistance of a tiny camera (laparoscope). Other treatments include cryosurgery, chemotherapy and biological therapy.