Kidney Diseases & Conditions
The conditions addressed by the Institute of Nephrology include:
- Chronic kidney disease & chronic kidney failure: Long-standing diseases of kidney results in slow, irreversible damage to kidneys and deterioration of kidney function. In early stages, the signs are less apparent. As the disease progresses to further stages, the kidney functions decline and symptoms become more prominent. Early diagnosis and treatment of kidney diseases is thus important. Institute of Nephrology is well equipped for the necessary blood tests, urine tests, imaging tests and biopsies for chronic kidney disease, also known as renal parenchymal disease. Treatment for CKD includes medications, dialysis and kidney transplants in the end-stage CKD and chronic kidney failure.
- Acute kidney injury & acute renal failure: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is commonly seen in hospitalized patients, especially in critically ill patients. The institute provides critical care with leading practicing nephrologists for mild, moderate and severe acute kidney injury. AKI is associated with rapid (within hours or days) decrease in renal excretion and accumulation of creatinine and toxic wastes (accelerated decline in kidney function). Our nephrologists focus to identify the injury before it culminates into acute renal failure. Patients may require renal replacement therapy in both the cases. It is important to stop the progress of acute renal failure from progressing to chronic kidney disease.
- Recurrent kidney stones: Kidney stones or renal calculi refer to the formation of a hard, crystalline mineral material within the kidney or urinary tract. Half of the patients with recurrent kidney stones have excess calcium in the urine (hypercalciuria) or Hyperoxaluria & oxalosis.
- Kidney stones may be removed using extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL), percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) or open surgery. Depending upon the location of the stones, the condition is further termed as:
- Nephrolithiasis: stones are present in the kidney.
- Urolithiasis: stones are present in the bladder or urinary tract.
- Ureterolithiasis: stones are located in the ureters.
- Chronic/recurrent urinary tract infections: A threshold of 3 urinary tract infections (UTIs) is considered to be chronic/recurrent UTIs. Bacterial persistence or reinfection. Recurrent infections require additional treatment strategies other than infection control. Nephrologists at the Institute identify and treat the possible underlying factors such as diabetes mellitus, chronic renal insufficiency, urinary tract abnormalities or obstructions, or voiding dysfunction.
- Polycystic kidney disease& Simple kidney cysts: Non-cancerous, fluid-filled sacs that start growing small have the ability to grow large and affect the kidney function over a period of time. Many people with PKD have kidney failure by age 60. Based on the overall health status and underlying factors nephrologists choose across different treatment approaches which may or may not include kidney transplantation.
- Glomerular disease (glomerulonephritis) & Lupus nephritis: Damage to the kidneys as a result of immune response can result in glomerulaonephritis (inflammation & injury of glomeruli, the filtering units of kidneys) or lupus nephritis (inflammation of kidneys resulting from an autoimmune disease called as systemic lupus nephritis “SLE”).
- Nephropathy: Any damage to the kidneys to the small blood vessels and glomerulus and other components involved in filtering blood results in nephropathy. Some of the types of nephropathy include uric acid nephropathy & diabetic nephropathy. Nephrologists work closely with endocrinologists to understand and treat the disease.
- Pediatric kidney disorders: Nephrotic syndrome involves any damage to the blood vessels involved in filtering blood in kidneys. Commonly notice in children above age 3 years and in adults. Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is the scarring in the small sections of glomerulus and responsible for nephrotic syndrome seen in children and adolescents.
- Hypertension: Sometimes, high BP may not relate to any causative factors (essential hypertension). But in many cases, abnormally high blood pressure may present secondarily, either due to malignancies (malignant hypertension), pregnancy, orthostatic causes (orthostatic hypertension), complication of post-transplant, primary aldosteronism, vascular changes in kidneys (renovascular hypertension).
- Renal cancers: Nephrologists work closely with the oncologists in the treatment of several renal cancers and tumors. Nephroblastoma or Wilms’ tumor typically occurs in children, rarely in adults.
- Renal transplants: Nephrologists play a major part in the multidisciplinary team for pre, peri and postoperative management of renal transplant patients.
- Medical emergencies like metabolic acidosis, poisoning, fluid and electrolyte imbalance, etc.
Health Blogs for Nephrology
Frequently asked questions about kidney transplant
May 04, 2019 11:25
Kidney transplant refers to a surgical procedure of placing a healthy kidney from a donor (alive or deceased) in the body of an individual whose kidneys fail to function normally. Kidney transplant is one of the most common transplant surgeries done around the world.
మూత్రపిండాల సమస్యలను గుర్తించటం ఎలా ? చికిత్స విధానాల వివరాలు
Mar 29, 2019 16:02
మూత్రపిండాల సమస్యలో ఐదు దశలు ఉంటాయి. మొదటి దశ, రెండో దశలో అసలు వ్యాధి లక్షణాలు కనిపించవు. మూడో దశలో ఆకలి మందగించడం, నీరసం, ముఖం వాచినట్లుగా ఉండటం, కాళ్లలో వాపు రావడం వంటి లక్షణాలు కనిపిస్తాయి.
వేసవిలో వేధించే మూత్రనాళ, కిడ్నీ వ్యాధులు ముందు జాగ్రతతో ఉపశమనం, ప్రమాదకర సమస్యల నివారణ
Mar 12, 2019 17:04
ఎండకాలం వచ్చే ఆరోగ్యసమస్యలలో మూత్రపిండాలు, మూత్రసంబంధమైనవి ముందు స్థానంలో ఉంటాయి. వీటిలో మూత్రపిండాలలో రాళ్లు ఏర్పడటం, యూరినరీ ట్రాక్(మూత్రనాళపు) ఇన్ఫెక్షన్లు ప్రధానమైనవి.
Learn the facts about PKD – Polycystic Kidney Disease
Mar 09, 2019 13:16
Polycystic kidney disease is characterised by cysts in the kidney which increase both in size and number, often resulting in kidney failure. Kidney transplant has shown successful result but precautionary measures are to be taken to cope up with its complications.
Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome (HUS)
Sep 19, 2016 07:00
A type of E. coli bacteria produces toxins that can destroy the red blood cells and block the kidneys’ filtering system Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is a condition where the red blood cells are destroyed, abnormally. This leads to clogging of the kidney’s filtering system and leads to kidney failure. Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is […]
Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD)
Sep 03, 2016 05:37
Chronic kidney disease or chronic kidney failure is a slow and progressive loss of kidney function over a period of several years Chronic kidney disease (CKD) also described as chronic kidney failure is a condition where kidneys gradually stop functioning. The primary function of kidneys is to filter wastes and excess fluids from the blood. […]
Age-related Kidney Diseases
Aug 16, 2016 07:09
Anyone can develop kidney disease, regardless of the age Kidney diseases may occur in all age groups. Except for the hereditary link, in many instances kidney diseases may have been caused by an underlying disease. Glomerulonephritis is a condition where the kidneys get inflammated / swollen. Diabetes (excess sugar in the blood) is one of […]
Acute kidney failure – loss of kidney’s filtering ability
May 11, 2016 04:59
Acute kidney failure is a condition where the kidneys no longer filter the waste products from the blood. This condition results in accumulation of waste in the blood leading to further complications. Acute kidney failure may happen over few hours or days, and usually seen in patients undergoing treatment for kidney diseases. Acute kidney failure […]
Towards innovation – Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy (CRRT)
Dec 17, 2015 08:51
Continuous renal replacement therapy or CRRT is a blood purification therapy. CRRT is advised for patients suffering from impaired renal function, also referred to as Acute Kidney Injury (AKI). ICU patients undergo this therapy 24 hours a day. Kidney failure or renal insufficiency is a medical condition in which the kidneys fail to adequately filter […]