Cancer: Haplo-identical Stem Cell Transplants – A revolution in Bone Marrow Transplantation
Different types of cancer affect the bone marrow cells. The growth of cancerous cells of the bone marrow is evident as anemia, bleeding and susceptibility to infections. The stem cells in the bone marrow produce different blood cells – red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets.
The stem cells ensure that a balance is maintained between number of blood cells made, and the number of blood cells that die or broken down. Some hormones and chemicals in the blood also help in regulating the number of blood cells in the body.
Predominantly, three-fold treatment is provided to patients suffering from cancer of the bone marrow.
1. Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy treatment includes the administering of anti-cancer medicines to kill cancer cells and stop them from multiplying.
2. A bone marrow transplant: The healthy bone marrow stem cells replace the damaged or destroyed bone marrow. The types of bone marrow transplants are Autologous – The donor is the patient itself. Allogeneic – Stem cells come from a donor, ideally a brother or sister with a similar genetic makeup. The stem cells of parents and their children who are half-matched can also be used; this is termed a haplo-identical transplant.First ever half-matched bone – marrow transplantation Successfully done at Yashoda Hospitals
3. Radiotherapy: Radiation deters multiplying of cancer cells by killing them.
Of all the treatments available, the stem-cell transplant has been considered to be very effective in the treatment of cancers such as leukemia, lymphoma, myelodysplasia, and multiple myeloma. Out of the two types of stem cell transplants, the allogeneic transplant where doctors try to find a donor whose cells closely match the patient’s cells are preferred for transplantation.
The haplo-identical transplant, an allogeneic treatment has become very popular in the recent times where the donor is half-matched to the patient. A haplo-identical donor may be considered if a patient doesn’t have a fully matched related or unrelated donor. However, as this is a new specialization, not all transplant centers perform, or do, Haplo-identical transplants.
Haplo-identical bone marrow transplants are gaining popularity due to the benefits they offer to patients as most patients will have a readily available haplo-identical donor. However, there is also the flip-side to this that transplants from a haplo-identical donor may have higher risk of serious complications that may be seen as graft rejection, graft – versus – host disease (GVHD), and relapse.
Yashoda Hospitals has been in the forefront of providing world-class medical, surgical and emergency care services. Yashoda Hospitals’ commitment to further research and development in Cancer treatments has been full-fledged and unparalleled.
In this direction, the Bone Marrow or Stem Cell Transplant Center at Yashoda has undertaken rare and complex procedures for the advancement of hematopoietic stem cell transplant. Yashoda Hospitals earned a great recognition as best cancer hospital in hyderabad by performing the first Haplo-Identical Bone Marrow Transplant in the states of Telangana and Andhra Pradesh.
By adhering with National Accreditation Board for Hospitals and Healthcare Providers (NABH), Yashoda Hospitals could create a culture of safety, efficiency, and accountability towards patient care across all the departments.